What is DNA
- DNA Testing
- Family Tree
- Forensics and DNA
- Medicine and DNA
- What is DNA
Mitochondrial DNA, or mtdna, is inherited strictly from the Mother and is sometimes referred to as your second genome. Mitochondrial DNA is small cellular organelles called mitochondria. Both men and woman inherit mitochondrial DNA from their Mother, however, only the female mitochondrial DNA is passed on down to her children. The male mitochondrial DNA that is in the sperm is killed very quickly upon fertilization. Therefore, the only part that is passed on is that from the Mother. Mitochondrial DNA mutates very, very slowly and for this reason stays virtually the same as for ancestor thousands of years ago, unlike the Ydna. Mitochondrial DNA give the cells energy to use, and are therefore, referred to as the “powerhouse”.
We have always thought that identical twins or triplets would be identical if they were in fact true maternal twins or triplets. This means that one fertilized egg, that carried one set of genomic instructions from the Mother and Father, split. Fraternal twins, on the other hand, are expected to be different as that is two eggs that are fertilized separately and are no more identical than other siblings. We have twins in our family; one is short with a darker complexion and the other tall and blonde. However, Geneticist Carl Bruder of the University of Alabama and his colleagues have studied 19 sets of identical twins. Their findings prove that there are other things at play here. Copy number variants entered into it. It was found that one twin had more numbers of certain genes than the other twin. Therefore making a difference in the genetic makeup of the twins. This explains why one twin can have a certain disease while the other twin may not experience it. Normally, you inherit one copy of a gene from your Mother and one from your Father. However, there are times when, in certain regions of the genome, as many as 14 and more copies of a gene are present. This “Variant” in the genome will definitely have an impact on the prior studies of twins.
This “Variant” could be an important factor when DNA becomes a tool in the criminal justice system. If DNA of both twins is available and one of them does have the variants on a gene, it might be the deciding factor on guilt or innocence and could certainly assist with the “guilty beyond a doubt.” This could change the way DNA in determining guilt in a trial is done.
Our existence was intentional. If we were in fact created intentionally, doesn’t it make sense that God would have left us clues to that creation. “For nothing is hidden that will not become evident, not anything secret that will not be known and come to light. Luke 8:17. Gregg Braden, respected scientist, author and lecturer has taken the DNA and decoded the top layer wherein he stated there is a message from God. That message is “God, eternal within the body.” He discovered this message by following instructions in a series of ancient texts, following those languages and marrying it with today’s science. DNA cries out that there is a GOD! Your DNA is the manual for creating and operating the most magnificent of machines, the Human Body. DNA is a three-dimensional model which is self-replicating. Each molecule can make an identical copy efficiently and quickly. Special proteins, called enzymes travel up and down the DNA molecule correcting any replication errors. Your DNA points to God’s existence as it is an information science and nothing can be created in matter by itself. It just not possible for DNA to come about by years and years of mutation and natural selection. “O Lord how manifold are Your works. In wisdom, you have made them all.” Psalms 104:24.
A DNA test gives you more information than just your ethnicity. A DNA Test can offer benefits to determine genealogical factors such as diseases that may exist or that you may be predisposed to. For instance, my grandfather on my father’s side died of multiple sclerosis at the age of 44. My DNA specified the gene which carried that possibility of MS and showed the chance of me getting it. It also pointed out my inability to take drugs like warfarin. (In 2014 and again in 2017, I had a bleed out due to blood thinners, warfarin and eloquis). I now refuse to take any blood thinners. This can give you information that will allow you to change lifestyle habits that may contribute to your potential problems pointed out by your DNA testing.
In 1991 hikers stumbled onto a body thawing in 10,000’ glacier between Austria and Italy, that had been mummified, along with several implements such as a copper ax, grass shoes, a knife made of stone, leather leggings, and a quiver of arrows. Otzi (the Iceman), quickly became a scientific treasure. Otzi’s DNA showed that he had predisposition to heart disease and lime disease. A CT scan revealed that what killed him was an arrow lodged deep in his shoulder which hit an artery. Otzi would have bled to death rapidly. Otzi was shot and left to die and becomes a 5000 year-old open murder mystery. “Otzi” is the oldest human mummy known at this time. His frozen corpse carries many secrets from the past. Watch Youtube “Otzi, The Iceman, 5000 year old Murder Mystery”
From Otzi’s DNA it was determined that he was 5300 years old, and his gear suggests that he was a farmer. What can Otzi’s DNA tell us about our own history? Studying Otzi showed that he was born in Sardinia. Researchers were able to link other modern-day Sardinians to Otzi with DNA testing.
Would you like to see what secrets your DNA hold? Order your kit now!
The main religions in the world, Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam, believe that we are descended from One Man ~ Adam. It may be a little hard to believe that 6 billion people could be related. That is until you have your own DNA test run. Then you realize that the ancestors who went before you are all a part of you. A quest to find this scientific Adam began. Geneticists followed the trail deep into the past to uncover DNA and find this Adam. Enter the Y Chromosome. This Chromosome stays almost constant throughout history and is only attributable to men. Basically, the Y Chromosome links the men of today back to the common ancestor of the ancient past. The Y Chromosome generally stays constant over time, but every occasionally, a mutation creeps in and from there the mutation is passed down to each generation. This shows that these men are all descended from one Super Ancestor. It was determined that this man must have been a man of great power who had many sons and lived in Mongolia. The clues all pointed the great Mongolian, Genghis Khan, who ruled the largest empire or the time. DNA was taken from 5 Mongolians who lived in San Francisco. Results showed that 2 of these 5 men were in fact descended from Genghis Khan.
Thus, the Quest for Adam continued. It was determined that one of the best ways to continue this quest was laid out in the Bible. After all it start out with Adam begat Seth who begat …who begat…. down to Solomon, the third King of Jerusalem. The Royal Family of Ethiopia claims to be descended from Solomon and even have an extraordinary piece of evidence to connect them, “the Ark of the Covenant”. A Prince from the Royal Family consents to take a DNA test which points to Middle Eastern ancestry. The results were inconclusive.
The search for Adam, may have taken an unexpected turn. As we all know, we were surprised to hear that one of our forefathers, Thomas Jefferson, fathered children with his slave, Sally Hemings. His DNA turned out to have results that showed he had ancient European and French ancestry, but also that his Y Chromosome connected him to Middle Eastern descent, mainly Lebanon and Syria, ancient lands of Phoenicia and Canaan. A mutation on the Y Chromosome of Jefferson links him to a male who lived 40000 years ago.
The search for Adam continued in a small island off the coast of Kenya, called Pate. This island proved to be very diverse in ancestry, coming from Europe, Africa, Arabia, India and the fertile crescent of the Middle East. This island happened to be on the ancient trade route. They almost all have a mutation, M168. This mutation is shared by Genghis Khan, the men tested in San Francisco and Thomas Jefferson and nearly 3 billion men across the world which means they are all descended from one man. Could M168 be Adam? Of the 25 men who were tested on Pate Island, a couple did NOT have the M168 mutation, but had another which is in common with every ancestor in the world today. This would have to be SCIENTIFIC ADAM. Their DNA showed they came from Africa. It is believed that this Scientific Adam’s homeland is the Rift Valley of Tanzania or Ethiopia. The Y Chromosome was dated to determine that Scientific Adam lived some 60,000 years ago.
Properties of DNA
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
DNA is a long polymer made from repeating units called nucleotides. The structure of DNA is dynamic along its length, being capable of coiling into tight loops, and other shapes. In all species it is composed of two helical chains, bound to each other by hydrogen bonds. Both chains are coiled round the same axis, and have the same pitch of 34 ångströms (3.4 nanometres). The pair of chains has a radius of 10 ångströms (1.0 nanometre). According to another study, when measured in a different solution, the DNA chain measured 22 to 26 ångströms wide (2.2 to 2.6 nanometres), and one nucleotide unit measured 3.3 Å (0.33 nm) long. Although each individual nucleotide repeating unit is very small, DNA polymers can be very large molecules containing millions to hundreds of millions of nucleotides. For instance, the DNA in the largest human chromosome, chromosome number 1, consists of approximately 220 million base pairs and would be 85 mm long if straightened.
In living organisms, DNA does not usually exist as a single molecule, but instead as a pair of molecules that are held tightly together. These two long strands entwine like vines, in the shape of a double helix. The nucleotide contains both a segment of the backbone of the molecule (which holds the chain together) and a nucleobase (which interacts with the other DNA strand in the helix). A nucleobase linked to a sugar is called a nucleoside and a base linked to a sugar and one or more phosphate groups is called a nucleotide. A polymer comprising multiple linked nucleotides (as in DNA) is called a polynucleotide.
The backbone of the DNA strand is made from alternating phosphate and sugar residues. The sugar in DNA is 2-deoxyribose, which is a pentose (five-carbon) sugar. The sugars are joined together by phosphate groups that form phosphodiester bonds between the third and fifth carbon atoms of adjacent sugar rings. These asymmetric bonds mean a strand of DNA has a direction. In a double helix, the direction of the nucleotides in one strand is opposite to their direction in the other strand: the strands are antiparallel. The asymmetric ends of DNA strands are said to have a directionality of five prime (5′) and three prime (3′), with the 5′ end having a terminal phosphate group and the 3′ end a terminal hydroxyl group. One major difference between DNA and RNA is the sugar, with the 2-deoxyribose in DNA being replaced by the alternative pentose sugar ribose in RNA.
IN 1953 two gentlemen, Francis Crick and James Watson, discovered the double helix, which is known as the twisted ladder structure or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Watson and Crick were able to determine the 3D structure of DNA from an x-ray photograph taken by Rosalind Franklin. The structure of DNA was found to be a double helix. This was a fascinating breakthrough in Science and gave rise to the modern molecular biology. This was the beginning of the mapping of the genome. Crick and Watson showed that DNA had a structure sufficiently complex and yet elegantly simple enough to be the master molecule of life. In 1944, Oswald Avery had shown that it was DNA that was the “transforming principle,” or the carrier of hereditary information, especially in pneumococcal bacteria. Before Francis Crick and James Watson even began their studies, DNA was isolated by Friedrich Miescher in 1869. Miescher was able to isolate various phosphate-rich chemicals, which at the time, he called nuclein, We now call this nucleic acids which come from the nuclei of white blood cells. This paved the way for DNA being identified as the carrier of inheritance.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“Deoxyribonucleic acid (i/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˌkliːɪk, –ˌkleɪɪk/; DNA) is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix.”
“The two DNA strands are termed polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases — cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A), or thymine (T) — a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group. The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone. The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules (A with T, and C with G), with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA. The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 1037 and weighs 50 billion tonnes. In comparison, the total mass of the biosphere has been estimated to be as much as 4 trillion tons of carbon (TtC).’
‘DNA stores biological information. The DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage, and both strands of the double-stranded structure store the same biological information. This information is replicated as and when the two strands separate. A large part of DNA (more than 98% for humans) is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences.’
‘The two strands of DNA run in opposite directions to each other and are thus antiparallel. Attached to each sugar is one of four types of nucleobases (informally, bases). It is the sequence of these four nucleobases along the backbone that encodes biological information. RNA strands are created using DNA strands as a template in a process called transcription. Under the genetic code, these RNA strands are translated to specify the sequence of amino acids within proteins in a process called translation.’
‘Within eukaryotic cells DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. During cell division these chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing each cell its own complete set of chromosomes. Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi, and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus and some of their DNA in organelles, such as mitochondria or chloroplasts. In contrast prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) store their DNA only in the cytoplasm. Within the eukaryotic chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA. These compact structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed.’
“DNA was first isolated by Friedrich Miescher in 1869. Its molecular structure was first identified by James Watson and Francis Crick from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in 1953, whose model-building efforts were guided by X-ray diffraction data acquired by Raymond Gosling, who was a post-graduate student of Rosalind Franklin. DNA is used by researchers as a molecular tool to explore physical laws and theories, such as the ergodic theorem and the theory of elasticity. The unique material properties of DNA have made it an attractive molecule for material scientists and engineers interested in micro- and nano-fabrication. Among notable advances in this field are DNA origami and DNA-based hybrid materials. “